The English Language!

Discussion in 'I Have a Question...' started by William!, Jan 20, 2008.

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  1. William!

    William! Guest

    This is my opinion, and I respect what everyone has said about this word but I disagree with what you had said. According to the Webster's New Millenniumâ„¢ Dictionary of English, Preview Edition (v 0.9.7), Langmaker Dictionary of Neologisms, Langmaker Dictionary of Neologisms, Garner's Modern American Usage, Cassell's Dictionary of Slang, Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner, Dictionary of American Regional English, and the A Dictionary of Jamaican English, it is a word. One of my pet peeves is when a person makes a statement about what is and what is not a word. Who determines what is regarded as a word and what is regarded as not a word? Many people have different definitions of what is considered a word. Not even all lexicographers are in agreement about what constitutes a word. I feel that the only way a person can say a word is not in any dictionary, is if they have consulted every dictionary in the world. If you had not looked in every dictionary in existence about a certain word, then your statement is rendered unverifiable. You might never know that a dictionary in which you have not looked could have that word listed as a bold entry. That also goes for all other claims about any word that is not in a certain dictionary. If a word is not in a dictionary, it could be in another dictionary. Since I do not have complete knowledge about every dictionary, I cannot make statements such as, "This is not a word." There are also over five hundred thousand scientific names for insects. Just because most of those scientific names are not in a certain dictionary, does that mean that they are not words? Certainly not! All of the scientific names for insects might be contained in a certain scientific dictionary. Most medical terminology is not in the The Century Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary, or the Webster's Third New International Dictionary Does that mean they are also not words? No! You would have to consult a medical dictionary that contains the terminology. If a medical dictionary you have consulted does not have a particular medical term in it, look in another medical dictionary. What I am saying is that for a person to make a statement like the one you made, you would have to have all knowledge in existence about dictionaries. It is just my opinion, and I respect yours as well. I respect and tolerate all opinions and beliefs, even those of which I disapproved, or with which I disagree.

    Dave, I respect what you said, but I disagree with you. What one person might claim is a word, another might claim that it is not a word. I have already made my point, that it is a word, according to some of the dictionaries of which I have presented on this web site. The definition of word also differs in many dictionaries. Not even all linguists and lexicographers agree on what exactly constitutes a word. Each human being might have a different definition of what is a word. It depends on what one finds reliable, prestigious, or trustworthy. I believe that not every dictionary is reliable. Some dictionaries are more reliable than others. I disagree with the statement that medical and scientific terms are different in that they are describing new things that have had no description or name before, thus requiring a word in order to distinguish them from other drugs, processes, and/or chemicals. The reason medical and scientific terms are not in many standard and/or general dictionaries, is that, lexicographers cannot include them due to inadequate space in those dictionaries. If lexicographers were to include all medical and scientific words in standard and/or general dictionaries, he or she would have to create an enormous number of pages, or better yet, a large number of volumes to include such words. Such a task would be unnecessarily lengthy, or inordinate, therefore, the lexicographers do not include those words in some, many, or almost all standard and/or general dictionaries. Since I do not know the existence of all those particular dictionaries, I cannot make such a claim that not all scientific and medical terms or in some or many of those particular dictionaries. Lexicons are not the only reference books that should be consulted. One can consult a glossary, a printed source, an online source, an encyclopedia, an almanac, or any other nonfictional book. One can also consult an article in a particular journal and/or magazine, or any visual material. Audio material can also be consulted to discover information concerning a specific term, phrase, word, or idiom. If one desires to discover information about a word related to law, one might consult a law dictionary. If one desires to find information about word related to medicine, one might consult a medical dictionary. If one wants to find information about a word related to philosophy, one might consult a philosophical dictionary. If one wants to find information about slang, nonstandard, and/or informal words, one might have to consult a slang dictionary. If one wants to search for information about a word, relating to any profession, occupation, field of knowledge, topic, or subject, one might consult a dictionary, encyclopedia, and/or glossary that might most likely have the word included in it. To view rare or obscure words, one might want to view an unabridged dictionary. A dictionary that has more than one hundred thousand bold entries in it. In addition, an extreme descriptive linguist might disagree or disapprove of the statement: "by that logic, any and every word conceivable with any kind of syllable structure could be such, rendering the use of a standard language pointless." To an extreme descriptive linguist, any sound that can possibly be made by the human mouth is a word, and that the existence of rules and standards of how the language should be utilized is ineffective, meaningless, and unnecessary. This particular type of linguist would also make the claim that any sentence structure is acceptable, and that any word, term, idiom, phrase, and inflected form of any word, can be used in any manner possible, and that the manner, regardless of what it is, would be considered satisfactory. Moreover, the abovementioned linguist might also state that any pronunciation of any term or word, is acceptable, and that any word can be used in any part of speech, and inserted anywhere in any sentence, in any fashion. That any defintion can be attached to any word, and that any word, can have any meaning or as many meanings without any limitations. Anything possible, such as a combination of letters, symbols, characters, numbers, and/or a mixture of any of them in any manner is acceptable, and regarded as a word. To an extreme descriptive linguist, the current rules of any language, and the standards, and patterns that are widely regarded by many educated individuals as the standard or norm, is unacceptable, and should be eliminated. The linguist believes that languages should be used in any possible way, without any rules and standards. That standards for spelling, syntax, and grammar should be avoided. An extreme descriptive linguist also believes that no word can be misspell, mispronounce, or used incorrectly in any way, because any use of any word is acceptable to that linguist. No form of any language can ever be incorrect and that any advice on how any language should be used, or the usage of any language is pointless. A pure descripive believes that any and every word conceivable with any kind of syllabic structure would not render the use of a standard language pointless. To the decriptive, it is standard, and that any use of the language is standard and formal. the word "ain't" is just as satisfactory as the word "aren't. Fortunately, not many people possess this position, and I do not share the beliefs of pure descriptives. I believe that there should be rules regarding the usage of the English language, and I believe that if a term is not in any dictionary, or printed, visual, audio, and online material, and, it is not use by any human being, it is therefore, not a word. Although, what one regards a word might differ from one individual to individual. Regardless of what anyone says, conversate is a word. I know many people, if not, the vast majority of people might disagree, but that is not going to change what I think about the word. New words or neologisms probably are being created every day. Here are some sources with words one might not find in any major dictionary. One would possibly have to search for an unabridged dictionary to know any information about any of those words.

    http://www.wordspy.com/ A web site for neologisms.

    http://www.wordfocus.com/ You will not find many of the words mentioned on that web site in many major and general dictionaries.

    http://www.peevish.co.uk/slang/index.htm An online slang dictionary.

    http://www.intranet.csupomona.edu/~jasanders/judi2.html An online web site for slang used in colleges and universites.

    http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/hp.asp An online medical dictionary.

    http://www.sex-lexis.com/ Many of the words in this dictionary are sexual, derogatory and/or vulgar, and most of them will probably not be find in most major dictionaries, but, most of them can be found in the Cassell's Dictionary of Slang, and A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.

    http://phrontistery.info/ All of the words on this web site are in the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition.

    http://www.islandnet.com/~egbird/dict/dict.htm These words are very rare and are not in many general dictionaries.

    http://www.yourdictionary.com/specialty.html This web site provides links to many specialized glossaries and dictionaries.

    http://polyglot.lss.wisc.edu/dare/dare.html A dictionary of regional English.

    http://www.global-language.com/CENTURY/ This dictionary is probably the second largest English dictionary in the world.

    http://www.difficultwordsinfo.com/ A dictionary of advanced words.

    http://members.aol.com/gulfhigh2/words.html Some of the words on this web site are so rare, that, the words might only be in a few dictionaries. Most of them can be found in many unabridged dictionaries.

    http://www.kokogiak.com/logolepsy/ A web site of obscure words.

    http://www.worldwidewords.org/index.htm A very useful web site pertaining to words, and the etymology of the words.

    http://home.comcast.net/~wwftd/rst.htm#sesquipedalian
    Another web site concerning words.

    http://www.onelook.com/ Use this web site if one wants to search several dictionaries and glossaries at once for particular words, terms, idioms, phrasal verbs, and/or specialized terms. I use this web site every day.

    http://www.glossarist.com/ Another web site for searching for glossaries of words.

    http://www.mercksource.com/pp/us/cn...mmonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd-a-b-000zPzhtm A dictionary of medical words.

    http://medlineplus.gov/ A web site about medical information of words, and also has an encyclopedia of medical terms.

    http://www.stedmans.com/ Another web site of medical terms, and it provides medical books one can order to learn more about medicine.

    http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/acronym_index.html A dictionary of military words or terms.

    http://www.1000dictionaries.com/ A self-explanatory web address.

    http://www.refdesk.com/factdict.html Another web site of glossaries.

    http://home.earthlink.net/~ruthpett/safari/megalist.htm

    http://www.urbandictionary.com/ I do not regard this a very useful web site but it is interesting.

    http://www.acronymfinder.com/ A dictionary of acronyms.

    http://www.wiktionary.org/ Not a very useful web site, but also intriguing.

    http://www.wikipedia.org/ Not very useful, since, almost anyone can edit the articles, but exceedingly informative.


    http://www.doubletongued.org/ Another useful web site about words. Mostly words that are recently coined, but has not gained mainstream acceptance.

    http://eslcafe.com/idioms/ Another dictionary of slang.

    http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/dictionaries/difficultwords/ Another dictionary of words that are considered advanced.

    http://www.word-detective.com/backidx.html A comprehensive history of many words.



    I can add more links pertaining to words, but that could take a week. I am going to add more after the next few sentences.

    What I want to say is, are the names of products, trademarks, brand names, slogans, objects, and devices words? What about the name of chemical properties?

    http://dir.yahoo.com/Reference/Dictionaries/ A directory of online dictionaries, encyclopedias, and glossaries.

    http://www.google.com/Top/Reference/Dictionaries/ A Google directory of dictionaries, encyclopedias, and glossaries.

    http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php A medical web site.

    http://www.medtrng.com/meddict.htm A web site of web sites of medical glossaries and dictionaries.

    http://www.interfold.com/translator/medlinks.htm

    http://www.slangcity.com/ Self-explanatory.

    http://www.notam02.no/~hcholm/altlang/ht/English.html Another online slang dictionary.

    http://www.nz.com/new-zealand/guide-book/language/dictionary.aspx A dictionary of words used in New Zealand.

    Here are some printed dictionaries I recommend:

    A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.

    Cassell's Dictionary of Slang.

    Dictionary of Contemporary Slang.

    A Dictionary of Playground Slang.

    Macquarie Book of Slang.

    The Slanguage of Sex.

    The MacMillan Dictionary of Slang.

    The Oxford Dictionary of Slang.

    Dictionary of American Slang.

    New Dictionary of American Slang.

    Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang.

    Slang and Euphemism: A Dictionary of Oaths, Curses, Insults, Ethnic Slurs, Sexual Slang and Metaphor, Drug Talk, College Lingo, and Related Matters.

    The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.

    Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang.

    War Slang: American Fighting Words and Phrases Since the Civil War.

    The Big Book of Filth: 6500 Sex Slang Words and Phrases.

    Dorland's Medical Dictionary.

    Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.

    Black's Medical Dictionary.

    Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary.

    Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
     
  2. William!

    William! Guest

    I posted this on a blog, and thought that it would be good to post it on this forum:

    Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

    Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged.

    Black's Law Dictionary with Pronunciations.

    Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law.

    Law Dictionary.

    A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage.

    Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

    The Official Scrabble Players Dictionary

    The Oxford English Dictionary, First and Second Edition.


    The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Eleventh Edition.

    The Century Dictionary.

    American Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

    Mo' Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Defined.

    Encarta World English.

    I also recommend thesauri, such as all editions of Roget's Thesaurus, and any dictionary created by the Oxford University Press.

    The point I am attempting to make, is that since there are a large number of dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias, and other reference sources which might have the word conversate in them, and that, just because a word is not in one reference book and online source, does not mean that it is not in all reference books and online sources. One would have to do a thorough search for information about any word or anything similar to a word, to know any sort of information about it. That is why I will never say or state that (insert anything here) is not a word. Unless I have information about all material that is in subsistence, and I comprehend all that material thoroughly or completely. Since, that is not possible for a human being, I will never make a claim that "X" is not a word. There are also over one million scientific names for insects alone, and that does not include the informal names, or the scientific names for the rest for the living organism. It is debatable in the scientific community whether viruses are biological organisms, so, I cannot state viruses as a species part of the planet Earth. There are also more than 80 million chemical names. There are over 5 million patents. Are the names of patents words? I could go on and on, but, that would be excessive. None of these could be included in any dictionary for obvious reasons. Are the scientific names for insects, and the names of chemical properties considered words? Most slang that is in the Cassell's Dictionary of Slang are not even in many of the renowned major dictionaries, and the slang entries alone is over 80 thousand words. I could add more information about reference material, but I am exasperated about that, and am going to discontinue. I am going to add some more web sites, but, the authors of these articles on these web sites, endeavors to answer the questions about "what is a word?"

    http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAWord.htm

    http://www.sfwa.org/writing/wordcount.htm

    http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei...word.pdf&w=word&d=dpyFHfL9P0E3&icp=1&.intl=us

    http://20bits.com/2007/04/04/what-is-a-word-an-introduction-to-computaitonal-linguistics/

    http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei...what+is+a+word"&d=StpMWfL9P0bN&icp=1&.intl=us

    http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei...what+is+a+word"&d=OXaXm_L9Pzqv&icp=1&.intl=us

    http://www.askoxford.com/asktheexperts/faq/aboutenglish/numberwords?view=uk

    http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei...ords+are+there"&d=Xi3-yvL9Pm51&icp=1&.intl=us

    http://www.slate.com/id/2139611 Very useful.

    http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/15923/

    http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/drgw004.html

    http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002809.html

    http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/JohnnyLing.shtml This web site is extremely useful, since, it compares the figures from other sources.

    http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/3925/?letter=E

    http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/4029/?letter=E&spage=4

    http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~aahobor/Old-Website/Language-Facts.htm

    http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/howmany.htm I read the information on this web site many times.

    This is to the user UAintNevaLied. You never know that those words you claim that you have created could actually be words in some dictionary, or other books. It is strange, and humorous when a person claims to have created a word that is already or might be in existence. I could continue discussing about the many varieties, and dialects of English, but I am going to conclude this by stating that I have proven my point by being very detailed about my beliefs and opinions in regards to words. I will state this again. No matter what anyone says, all informal, slang, and nonstandard words, such as, "irregardless" "ain't" "dunno" "gonna" "wanna" and "conversate" are words. If one wants to prove me otherwise, I will defend my statement by providing those sources that supports my opinions and beliefs. It does not matter though, because everyone has a different notion of what a word is. After all, there might be people, who might say that "he" "she" "him" "her" "they" "it" "are" "good" "bad" "right" "left" "was" "got" "I" and "see" are not real words, but those would most likely be the extreme prescriptive linguist.
     
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